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    1. 豆粕熱加工及酶處理提高蛋白的體外消化以及斷奶仔豬蛋白、氨基酸的消化率

      發布單位:天津瑞孚農牧科技集團有限公司

      查看次數:815

      時間:2020-09-05
      豆粕中含有抗營養因子,限制了豬對蛋白質的消化過程以及整體消化率。本試驗評估了熱加工和酶處理對蛋白質體外消化率以及斷奶仔豬蛋白、氨基酸消化率的影響。
      每批豆粕(48%蛋白)分為兩部分:對照組(無深加工)和試驗組(熱加工并酶處理的豆粕)。在體外消化試驗中,選擇3批豆粕,每批豆粕3個重復,經過胃蛋白酶在pH 3.5下處理1.5小時(胃消化階段),然后在胰蛋白酶和膽汁提取物在pH 6.8下處理0、0.5、1、2、4、6小時(小腸消化階段)。根據豆粕在0.5、0.5-4、4小時至最后消化的部分,表示為快速消化蛋白、中速消化蛋白、慢速消化蛋白,以及未消化蛋白。試驗選用8頭斷奶去勢公豬(大白×杜洛克,9.43±0.40kg),經手術安置T型回腸瘺管。試驗為尤登方設計,豬只隨機分至3種日糧(無氮日糧、豆粕日糧、深加工豆粕日糧,日糧中以豆粕或深加工豆粕添加40%作為氨基酸唯一來源),日糧中添加三氧化二鉻作為指示劑。總共進行4期試驗,每期試驗包括5天試驗期,2天收糞期,2天食糜收集期。速消化蛋白25%(P=0.056),減少了慢速消化蛋白48%、未消化蛋白11%(P<0.05)。動物試驗中,深加工提高了粗蛋白的2.3%表觀回腸消化率、2.1%標準回腸消化率(P<0.05)。深加工顯著提高了除脯氨酸、甘氨酸、半胱氨酸外其它氨基酸的表觀、標準回腸消化率,提高幅度高達3.3%。深加工對活性賴氨酸、賴氨酸:粗蛋白沒有顯著影響,但是顯著提高了賴氨酸和活性賴氨酸的標準回腸消化率3%。
      總之,深加工豆粕體外消化速度和消化率顯著提高,與動物實驗結果相吻合,并且抗營養因子含量顯著降低。因此,熱加工和酶處理可以生產一種更優質的蛋白原料,消化速度更快,消化率更高,減少了后腸道蛋白發酵的程度。

      Thermomechanical and enzyme-facilitated processing of soybean meal enhanced in vitro kinetics of protein digestion and protein and amino acid digestibility in weaned pigs
      Soybean meal (SBM) contains anti-nutritional factors (ANF) that may limit kinetics and total extent of protein digestion in pigs. This study evaluated the effects of thermomechanical and enzyme-facilitated (TE) processing on in vitro kinetics of crude protein (CP) digestion and CP and amino acid (AA) digestibility in weaned pigs. Each batch of SBM (48% CP) was divided into two parts: non-processed SBM as control vs. thermomechanical and enzyme-facilitated processed soybean meal (TES) as the experimental group. For digestion kinetics, samples (three batches of non-processed SBM vs. TES) were incubated in triplicate sequentially with pepsin at pH 3.5 for 1.5 h (stomach phase) and subsequently with pancreatin and bile extract at pH 6.8 for 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, or 6 h (small intestine phase). Protein was classified into CPfast, CPslow, and CPresistant corresponding to CP digested within the first 0.5 h, from 0.5 to 4 h, and after 4 h plus undigested CP, respectively. Eight weaned barrows (Large White × Duroc, 9.43 ± 0.40 kg) were surgically fitted with a T-cannula at the terminal ileum. Pigs were randomly assigned to a Youden square with three diets over four periods. The three diets were an N-free diet and two diets using 40% SBM or TES as the sole source of AA with Cr2O3 as an indigestible marker. Each period included sequentially a 5-d adaptation, 2-d collection of feces, and 2-d collection of ileal digesta. The TE processing reduced ANF content in TES by 91% for lectin, 22% for trypsin inhibitor activity, 75% for β-conglycinin, and 62% for glycinin compared with SBM. In vitro, TE processing increased (P < 0.05) digested CP by 5.6% and enhanced the kinetics of CP digestion by tending to increase (P = 0.056) CPfast by 25% and reducing (P < 0.05) CPslow and CPresistant by 48% and 11%, respectively. In pigs, TE processing increased (P < 0.05) apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP in TES by 2.3% and 2.1%, respectively. The TE processing increased (P < 0.05) AID and SID of all AA up to 3.3%, except for AID of Pro and SID of Pro, Gly, and Cys. The TE processing did not change reactive Lys or Lys:CP but increased (P < 0.05) SID of Lys and reactive Lys by 3%. Combined, the greater in vitro digestion kinetics matched the greater in vivo AID and SID of CP in TES and lower ANF compared with SBM. Thus, TE processing created a protein source that is digested faster and to a greater extent than SBM, thereby lowering the chance of protein fermentation.

      文章來源:豬營養國際論壇
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