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    1. 日糧脂肪酸對仔豬斷奶前后腸道健康和功能的影響

      發布單位:天津瑞孚農牧科技集團有限公司

      查看次數:1380

      時間:2020-04-29
      脂肪酸在粘膜免疫反應、腸道上皮屏障功能、氧化應激和炎癥反應發揮著重要作用。日糧脂肪酸組成和分子結構(脂肪酸鏈長度和雙鍵數量)影響著脂肪酸消化吸收、代謝,及其生物活性。仔豬斷奶后腸道發育不完善,尚未完全形成的免疫功能非常容易受到微生物的侵襲。通過母豬日糧調節乳脂肪酸組成,或者斷奶仔豬日糧脂肪來源,可以改善斷奶仔豬生長性能、腸道健康和功能。

      中鏈脂肪酸可以直接吸收進入血液,并能給腸上皮細胞提供能量。此外,中鏈脂肪酸同短鏈脂肪酸一樣具有抑菌效果,可能阻止腸道病原菌的過度生長。必需脂肪酸(亞油酸和α-亞麻酸)是合成長鏈多不飽和脂肪酸(n-3,n-6)的基礎。亞油酸和α-亞麻酸到長鏈多不飽和脂肪酸(n-3,n-6)的轉變影響著代謝物的分子結構和細菌感染后的炎癥反應、其它免疫反應。通過調整哺乳母豬日糧管理影響n-3,n-6多不飽和脂肪酸從母乳向仔豬的轉移,仔豬腸道組織和細胞膜對n-3,n-6多不飽和脂肪酸的吸收,在這些組織中脂肪酸對免疫反應和上皮屏障功能發揮著重要的生理活性。魚油中的n-3多不飽和脂肪酸可以影響豬腸道健康和功能,這對仔豬斷奶后容易發炎的過渡階段具有重要意義。細胞膜上不飽和脂肪酸的比例影響其對氧化應激的耐受程度。伴隨著感染性疾病的氧化應激、脂質過氧化物的形成和其它活性氧產物可能會損傷腸道屏障功能。來源于飼料的脂肪酸過氧化物可能與其它脂溶性物質一起被吸收,從而損害腸道功能。因此對于腸道細胞來說抗氧化保護非常重要。

      總之,調節日糧脂肪酸組成會影響豬腸道健康和功能,并在生產中的應激階段(如斷奶)維持正常的免疫系統、調節機體對傳染性疾病的抵抗力。

      Effects of dietary fatty acids on gut health and function of pigs pre- and post-weaning
      Fatty acids (FA) play a major role in relation to mucosal immune responses, epithelial barrier functions, oxidative stress, and inflammatory reactions. The dietary FA composition and the molecular structures (chain length and number of double bonds) influence digestion, absorption and metabolism, and the bioactivity of the FA. Piglets post-weaning having an immature intestine and not fully formed immune functions are very vulnerable to invading microorganisms. Manipulation of the milk FA composition via sow nutrition, or inclusion of dietary fat sources in the feed for newly weaned pigs, may be used as a strategic tool to enhance pig performance and their gut health and function pre- and post-weaning. Medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) are absorbed directly into the portal blood and may contribute to immediate energy for the enterocytes. In addition, the MCFA, similarly to the short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), possess antibacterial effects and may thereby prevent overgrowth of pathogenic bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract. The essential FA, linoleic (LA) and α-linolenic (ALA) FA, form the building blocks for the long-chain polyunsaturated n-3 and n-6 FA. The conversion of ALA and LA into n-3 and n-6 eicosanoids, respectively, influences the molecular structures of metabolites and inflammatory reactions and other immune responses upon bacterial challenges. Dietary manipulation of the lactating sow influences the transfer of the n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) from the sow milk to the piglet and the incorporation of the FA into piglet enteric tissues and cell membranes, which exerts bioactivity of importance for immune responses and the epithelial barrier function. Especially, the n-3 PUFA present in fish oil seem to influence the gut health and function of pigs, and this is of importance during the transition periods such as post-weaning in which piglets are prone to inflammation. The proportion of unsaturated FA in the cell membranes influences the susceptibility to oxidative stress. Oxidative stress accompanies infectious diseases, and the development of lipid peroxides and other reactive oxygen products may be harmful to the epithelial barrier function. Fatty acid peroxides from the feed may also be absorbed with other lipid-solubles and thereby harm the intestinal function. Hence, antioxidative protection is important for the enteric cells. In conclusion, manipulation of the dietary FA composition can influence the gut health and function in pigs and may support a normal immune system and modulate resistance to infectious diseases during especially stressful phases of a pig’s life such as post-weaning.

      文章來源:豬營養國際論壇
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